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Cleopatra was the last of the Ptolemaic (Greek) rulers of Alexandria, and the last Pharaoh (monarch) of Egypt. She had an affair with Julius Caesar and bore a son named Caesarion, but Caesar, mindful of his political standing in Rome, never acknowledged paternity. After the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC, Cleopatra seduced Mark Antony and sided with him against Octavian in the civil war. They were defeated in the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC. About two weeks after Antony committed suicide by piercing himself with his sword, Cleopatra committed suicide in 30 BC, traditionally by allowing a poisonous snake to bite her. Her son was executed by Octavian and Egypt became a province of Rome.

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