England was unified in 927 AD by Athelstan. Over time, it conquered Wales and Ireland and incorporated them as parts of England. Upon the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, the throne went to James VI of Scotland. However, the two realms were not officially united until 1707, when the Act of Union officially made them both parts of the United Kingdom.
Unlike the other three constituent countries, England has no central government. However, its unofficial capital city is London, where the Parliament of the United Kingdom sits. Other major cities include Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle and Bristol.
List of Kings and Queens of England
- Alfred the Great
- Edward the Elder
- Edmund I
- Edward the Martyr
- Ethelred the Unready
- Edmund Ironside
- Canute the Dane
- Harald Harefoot
- Edward the Confessor
- Harold Godwinson, who died in the 1066 Norman Conquest
- (Edgar Atheling proclaimed but never crowned)
- William the Conqueror
- William Rufus
- Henry I
- Matilda (First queen regnant. Title disputed.)
- Henry II
- Richard I Lionheart
- Henry VII
- Henry VIII, who established the independent Church of England
- Edward VI
- Mary I
- Elizabeth, who died without children.
- James I, also James VI of Scotland, next of kin to Elizabeth.
- Charles I
- Charles II
- James II
- William III and Mary II, joint king and queen
For succeeding rulers, see under United Kingdom.