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Goose bumps

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Goose bumps are small bumps on the skin as a result of hair follicles being erected by small muscles. This reaction is triggered by the autonomic nervous system as a response to cold, or an emotional response of fear or excitement.[1]

Alternative terms are horripilation,[1] piloerection, and cutis anserina.[1]


Evolutionists say that piloerection as a response to cold or emotion is vestigial, a leftover from our supposed evolutionary ancestors: as humans retain only very little body hair, the reflex supposedly provides no known benefit in humans. However Laura Spinney, an evolutionist who considers this to be vestigial, says that the function may in fact not be useless, but could serve to heighten emotional responses in humans.[2]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 {{{1}}}
  2. Doyle, Shaun, Vestigial Arguments: Remnants of Evolution, Journal of Creation 22(2) 2008.
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